By Tim Lambert
The area that is now Iraq was once divided into city-states. One of them was called Babillu. (It was known to the Greeks as Babylon).
For centuries Babylon was an unimportant city. However under the famous leader Hammurabi (C. 1792 BC-1750 BC) Babylon rose to greatness.
However after his death it declined and in C. 1595 BC a people called the Hittites from what is now Turkey invaded Babylon. The Hittites then withdrew but they left Babylon in a state of disorder. A race called the Kassites stepped into the vacuum and conquered Babylon. For centuries Babylon was ruled by Kassite kings but under them it flourished again.
Then after 900 BC a race called the Assyrians rose to greatness. They conquered a huge empire and came to dominate Babylon. Finally in 729 BC the Assyrian ruler Tiglath-Pileser made himself king of Babylon.
However the Babylonians resented Assyrian rule and they rebelled several times. Each time the Assyrians crushed them but in the 620s BC civil war began among the Assyrians. The Babylonians seized their chance. They formed an alliance with a people called the Medes and in 612 BC they captured and destroyed Nineveh the Assyrian capital.
However the Babylonians then began to conquer the provinces of the old Assyrian Empire. They quickly created their own empire, the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
Yet the new Babylonian Empire was short lived. In 539 BC the Persians captured Babylon and brought their empire to an end.
Hammurabi was a brilliant general who conquered many of his neighbors and built the first Babylonian Empire. Hammurabi is also famous as a lawgiver. His code of laws was carved in stone and a copy survives. The laws were extremely harsh by modern standards. If a surgeon performed an operation and he caused the patient's death his hand was cut off. If an architect built a house and it collapsed and killed the owner the architect was put to death.
Ordinary people in Babylon lived in simple huts made from sun dried mud bricks. However if the owner was wealthy they might have an upper story.
The rich lived in palaces with central courtyards. Walls were decorated with painted murals. There were even bathrooms with pipes for drainage.
The main crops in Babylon were cereals such as barley. Pulses such as beans, lentils and chickpeas were also important. So were dates. The Babylonians also ate cucumbers and lettuces.
They kept goats, sheep and cows for milk and cheese and leather as well as for their meat. The Babylonians also fished and caught locusts. However as in all pre-industrial societies meat was expensive and the poor rarely ate it. Ordinary people in Babylon drank beer but the rich drank wine.
Although Babylon and the surrounding area was agriculturally rich it lacked minerals such as copper, tin, timber and precious stones. They were imported and grain and textiles were exported.
The Babylonians were polytheists. (They worshiped many gods and goddesses). They also believed that famine, disease and suffering were caused by demons. People carried amulets to protect themselves from evil spirits.
Hammurabi made his god Marduk the chief god. Others were Ishtar the goddess of love and war, Shamash the sun god, Sin the moon god and Nabu the god of scribes. Divination was also important to the Babylonians. They believed that the gods decided the fate of the world and human beings could find out their plans. The Babylonians invented astrology. Babylonian priests also practiced divination by examining the livers of sacrificial animals.
The Babylonians also had a version of the flood story. In their version the gods decided to send a flood to wipe out the human race. However they warned a good man called Utnapishtim to build a boat. Utnapishtim survived the flood. Afterwards he sent out birds but they could not find dry land. However finally he sent out a raven, which did not return showing the flood waters were receding.
The Babylonians did believe in an afterlife. However they were very pessimistic. They believed the abode of the dead was a dismal and gloomy place.
A history of the Assyrians
A history of the Persians
A history of the Sumerians
A history of the Hittites
A history of the Minoans