A TIMELINE OF GERMANY
By Tim Lambert
9 AD The Romans are routed by the Germans preventing a Roman conquest of Germany
772 Charlemagne king of the Franks (from France) attacks the Germans
814 Charlemagne dies. After his death his empire breaks up and part of it becomes Germany.
933 Henry Duke of Saxony defeats the Magyars
936 Otto the Great becomes king of Germany
955 Otto crushes the Magyars
962 The pope crowns Otto emperor
1157 The Germanic Empire is called the Holy Roman Empire for the first time
1220 Frederick II becomes emperor
1254-1273 The Great Interregnum (a period without an emperor)
1356 Karl IV issues the golden bull, a document of rules for electing emperors
1349 The Black Death strikes Germany and kills about a third of the population
1386 Heidelberg University is founded
1409 Leipzig University is founded
1502 Wittenberg University is founded
1517 Martin Luther begins the Reformation
1522 The Diet of Worms, (a meeting of the German states). Martin Luther translates the New Testament into German
1525 The Peasants War (a peasants uprising) takes place in Germany
1531 German Protestant princes form an alliance
1555 The Diet of Augsburg decrees that each prince can decide which religion his people will follow
1618 The Thirty Years War begins
1648 The Thirty Years War ends but Germany is left devastated with much of her population dead
1740 Frederick the Great becomes king of Prussia and invades Silesia
1741 The Prussians defeat the Austrians at Mollwitz
1745 The war ends but Prussia is left with more territory
1756 Prussia goes to war against a coalition of enemies
1763 The war ends
1772 Prussia takes part of Poland
1792 Prussia goes to war with France
1793 Prussia takes more of Poland
1795 Prussia makes peace with France
1806 Napoleon ends the Holy Roman Empire. The French crush the Prussians at Jena.
1813 Prussia joins Russia against France
1815 A German Confederation is formed
1819 Metternich introduces strict censorship with the Karlsbad decrees
1834 Prussia and other states form a customs union called the Zollverein
1835 The first railway in Germany is built
1848 Revolution sweeps Germany. An elected assembly representing all Germany, called the Frankfurt Parliament meets.
1849 The rebellions are put down and the old order returns
1864 Prussia and Austria fight Denmark
1866 War between Prussia and Austria. Afterwards a North German Confederation is formed, which is dominated by Prussia.
1870 Prussia crushes France
1871 Prussia makes peace with France. The southern German states unite with the north.
1883 Bismarck introduces sickness insurance
1889 Bismarck introduces old age pensions
1890 Bismarck resigns
1898 Germany begins to expand its navy
1914 The German army overruns Belgium
1918 Russia surrenders to Germany. The Germans launch a series of assaults on France and Germany but fail to break through. From August the Germans are pushed back. In November they sign a cease-fire.
1919 Germany is forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles. Communists try to seize power in Berlin but are defeated.
1920 Dr Kapp attempts a coup but is defeated. The German Workers Party changes its name to the National Socialist German Workers Party.
1921 Hitler becomes head of the National Socialists
1923 Hitler leads a rebellion in Bavaria but is easily defeated. French and Belgian troops occupy the Ruhr. The workers go on strike but the result is hyper-inflation.
1925 French and Belgian troops leave the Ruhr
1929 The Wall Street Crash in the USA leads to mass unemployment in Germany
1932 Unemployment in Germany reaches 6 million. The National Socialists become the largest party.
1933 Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany. Later the Reichstag passes the enabling law, which gives Hitler dictatorial powers.
1934 President Hindenburg dies. Hitler takes over the President's powers.
1935 Hitler announces that Germany has an air force. He also introduces conscription. Hitler also passes the Nuremberg Laws oppressing Jews in Germany.
1936 German troops enter the demilitarised zone in the Ruhr
1938 Germans attack Jews and Jewish property in 'crystal night'.
1939 Germany invades Poland
1940 Germany invades Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium and France
1941 Germany invades Yugoslavia, Greece and Russia
1942 The Germans are defeated at El Alamein in Egypt
1943 The Germans are defeated at Stalingrad
1945 Russia invades Germany from the East. Britain and the USA invade from the west. Hitler commits suicide and Germany surrenders.
1948 The Berlin airlift takes place. USA sends Marshall Aid to help rebuild the German economy.
1949 A new state, West Germany is created.
1953 Strikes take place in East Germany. The Russians send in tanks.
1955 Germany joins NATO
1961 Communists build the Berlin Wall
1989 The Berlin Wall falls
1990 Germany is reunited
1999 Germany joins the Euro
2005 Angela Merkel becomes the first woman chancellor
A Brief History of Germany
A Timeline of Austria
A Timeline of Denmark
A Timeline of France
A Timeline of The World