A TIMELINE OF GERMANY

By Tim Lambert

9 AD The Romans are routed by the Germans preventing a Roman conquest of Germany

772 Charlemagne king of the Franks (from France) attacks the Germans

814 Charlemagne dies. After his death his empire breaks up and part of it becomes Germany.

933 Henry Duke of Saxony defeats the Magyars

936 Otto the Great becomes king of Germany

955 Otto crushes the Magyars

962 The pope crowns Otto emperor

1157 The Germanic Empire is called the Holy Roman Empire for the first time

1220 Frederick II becomes emperor

1254-1273 The Great Interregnum (a period without an emperor)

1356 Karl IV issues the golden bull, a document of rules for electing emperors

1349 The Black Death strikes Germany and kills about a third of the population

1386 Heidelberg University is founded

1409 Leipzig University is founded

1502 Wittenberg University is founded

1517 Martin Luther begins the Reformation

1522 The Diet of Worms, (a meeting of the German states). Martin Luther translates the New Testament into German

1525 The Peasants War (a peasants uprising) takes place in Germany

1531 German Protestant princes form an alliance

1555 The Diet of Augsburg decrees that each prince can decide which religion his people will follow

1618 The Thirty Years War begins

1648 The Thirty Years War ends but Germany is left devastated with much of her population dead

1740 Frederick the Great becomes king of Prussia and invades Silesia

1741 The Prussians defeat the Austrians at Mollwitz

1745 The war ends but Prussia is left with more territory

1756 Prussia goes to war against a coalition of enemies

1763 The war ends

1772 Prussia takes part of Poland

1792 Prussia goes to war with France

1793 Prussia takes more of Poland

1795 Prussia makes peace with France

1806 Napoleon ends the Holy Roman Empire. The French crush the Prussians at Jena.

1813 Prussia joins Russia against France

1815 A German Confederation is formed

1819 Metternich introduces strict censorship with the Karlsbad decrees

1834 Prussia and other states form a customs union called the Zollverein

1835 The first railway in Germany is built

1848 Revolution sweeps Germany. An elected assembly representing all Germany, called the Frankfurt Parliament meets.

1849 The rebellions are put down and the old order returns

1864 Prussia and Austria fight Denmark

1866 War between Prussia and Austria. Afterwards a North German Confederation is formed, which is dominated by Prussia.

1870 Prussia crushes France

1871 Prussia makes peace with France. The southern German states unite with the north.

1883 Bismarck introduces sickness insurance

1889 Bismarck introduces old age pensions

1890 Bismarck resigns

1898 Germany begins to expand its navy

1914 The German army overruns Belgium

1918 Russia surrenders to Germany. The Germans launch a series of assaults on France and Germany but fail to break through. From August the Germans are pushed back. In November they sign a cease-fire.

1919 Germany is forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles. Communists try to seize power in Berlin but are defeated.

1920 Dr Kapp attempts a coup but is defeated. The German Workers Party changes its name to the National Socialist German Workers Party.

1921 Hitler becomes head of the National Socialists

1923 Hitler leads a rebellion in Bavaria but is easily defeated. French and Belgian troops occupy the Ruhr. The workers go on strike but the result is hyper-inflation.

1925 French and Belgian troops leave the Ruhr

1929 The Wall Street Crash in the USA leads to mass unemployment in Germany

1932 Unemployment in Germany reaches 6 million. The National Socialists become the largest party.

1933 Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany. Later the Reichstag passes the enabling law, which gives Hitler dictatorial powers.

1934 President Hindenburg dies. Hitler takes over the President's powers.

1935 Hitler announces that Germany has an air force. He also introduces conscription. Hitler also passes the Nuremberg Laws oppressing Jews in Germany.

1936 German troops enter the demilitarised zone in the Ruhr

1938 Germans attack Jews and Jewish property in 'crystal night'.

1939 Germany invades Poland

1940 Germany invades Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium and France

1941 Germany invades Yugoslavia, Greece and Russia

1942 The Germans are defeated at El Alamein in Egypt

1943 The Germans are defeated at Stalingrad

1945 Russia invades Germany from the East. Britain and the USA invade from the west. Hitler commits suicide and Germany surrenders.

1948 The Berlin airlift takes place. USA sends Marshall Aid to help rebuild the German economy.

1949 A new state, West Germany is created.

1953 Strikes take place in East Germany. The Russians send in tanks.

1955 Germany joins NATO

1961 Communists build the Berlin Wall

1989 The Berlin Wall falls

1990 Germany is reunited

1999 Germany joins the Euro

2005 Angela Merkel becomes the first woman chancellor

A Brief History of Germany

Famous Germans

A Timeline of Austria

A Timeline of Denmark

A Timeline of France

A Timeline of The World

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