By Tim Lambert

Early Newcastle

1080 The Normans build a fort to safeguard the crossing of the River Tyne. Soon a town grows up in the shadow of the castle.

1216 A mayor of Newcastle is first mentioned

13th Century The most important export from Newcastle is wool but coal is also exported. Wine and spices are imported.

1294 A shipbuilding industry has begun in Newcastle. In the late 13th century walls are built around Newcastle.

1400 Newcastle is made a county in its own right. The population of Newcastle is about 4,000.

1500 About 15,000 tons of coal are exported from Newcastle. During the 16th century coal becomes the most important export.

1539 Henry VIII closes the friaries in Newcastle

1600 The population of Newcastle is about 10,000

1644 The Roundheads capture Newcastle

1650 About 400,000 tons of coal are exported from Newcastle every year.

1658 A new Guildhall is built

1711 Newcastle gains its first newspaper

1736 Assembly Rooms are built

1750 The population of Newcastle is about 20,000

1751 An infirmary is built

1755 Newcastle gains its first bank

1763 The streets of Newcastle are lit by oil lamps

1773-1781 A new bridge is built over the River Tyne

1788 The first Theatre Royal is built

Modern Newcastle

1801 The population of Newcastle is 28,000

1818 The streets of Newcastle are lit by gas

1825-1840 The centre of Newcastle is rebuilt

1832 Cholera kills 306 people in Newcastle

1838 Newcastle is connected to Carlisle by railway

1844 The Catholic Cathedral of St Mary is built

1848 Cholera kills 412 people in Newcastle

1851 The population of Newcastle is 87,000

1853 Cholera kills 1,533 people in Newcastle

1873 Leazes Park opens

1876 A swing bridge is built

1878 The first public library in Newcastle opens

1879 Horse drawn trams begin running in Newcastle

1880 Brandling Park opens

1882 The Church of St Nicholas is made a cathedral. Newcastle becomes a city. A drapers shop in Newcastle becomes the first shop in the world to be lit by electricity.

1900 Redneugh Road Bridge is built

1901 The population of Newcastle is 215,000. Electric trams begin running in the streets. Laing Art Gallery opens.

1906 King Edward VII railway bridge is built

1909 The first cinema opens in Newcastle

1925 Hatton Gallery is founded

1928 Tyne Bridge suspension bridge is built

1956 Shefton Museum opens

1963 Newcastle University is formed

1968 A new Civic Centre is built. A new Central Library opens

1969 Newcastle Polytechnic opens

1976 Eldon Square Shopping Centre opens

1983 Newcastle Military Museum is founded

1986 Stephenson Railway Museum opens

1988 Newcastle Arts Centre is built

1992 Monument Mall Shopping Centre is built

A new Central Library was built in 1968. Newcastle Arts Centre was built in 1988 and Monument Mall shopping centre was built in 1992.

2001 Millennium Bridge is opened

2002 Baltic Art Centre opens

A history of Newcastle

A timeline of Sunderland

A timeline of Durham

A timeline of Hartlepool

A timeline of Stockton