EVERYDAY LIFE IN ROME
By Tim Lambert
At its height the population of Rome was probably over one million. However the Roman Empire was an agricultural society where most people made their living from farming (although there were many craftsmen). Only a small minority of the population lived in towns.
In the Roman Empire there were two types of people - citizens and non-citizens. Roman citizens had certain privileges. Originally to be a citizen you had to be born in Rome of Roman parents. From 89 BC all inhabitants of Italy were made Roman citizens. Non-citizens who served in the Roman army for 25 years also became citizens. However in 212 AD century all free men in the Roman Empire were made citizens. (Women and slaves were not made citizens).
In Rome the upper class was called patricians. The Senators who ruled Rome came from patrician families. Below them were the equites. They were merchants and bankers and sometimes civil servants or army officers. All other free people were called plebeians. Many inhabitants of Rome were very poor. Often they had to live off a 'dole' of free grain provided by the government.
Many of the inhabitants of Rome were slaves. Prisoners of war were made slaves and any children slaves had were automatically slaves.
A slave's life was no doubt horrid. Most were probably treated reasonably just to keep them working efficiently. Slaves who worked in mines probably suffered most.
Some slaves did manage to save enough money to buy their freedom. Other were granted their freedom by their owners.
In Rome the father had authority over his wife and children. He could whip or beat his children and he could divorce his wife for quite trivial reasons - even if she was no longer attractive.
A history of slavery
In Rome poor people lived in blocks of flats called insulae. Most were at least five stories high. However they were often 'jerry built', and their walls sometimes cracked and roofs caved in.
Most people lived in just one or two rooms. Furniture was very basic. Rooms were heated by charcoal burned in braziers. The inhabitants used public lavatories. Most obtained water from public fountains and troughs.
It was too dangerous for the inhabitants of insulae to cook indoors and they had to buy hot food from shops.
In the centre of every Roman town was a rectangular space called the Forum. It was lined by shops and by a public building called the basilica. Markets were also held on the forum.
Roman men wore tunics. Roman citizens wore a semi-circular piece of cloth called a toga. It was folded over one shoulder. men wore white togas made of wool or linen. Senators wore a toga with a purple stripe as a mark of their rank. Women wore long dresses called a stola, dyed different colours. Often they wore a long shawl called a palla.
Ordinary Romans wore clothes of wool or linen but the rich could afford cotton and silk. Roman clothes were held with pins and brooches. Both men and women wore wigs and false teeth.
A history of clothes
In the towns another important building was the public baths. In Roman times people went to the baths not just to get clean but also to socialise. Roman Baths consisted of a frigidarium or cold room, a Tepidarium or warm room and a caldarium or hot room. You usually finished with a dip in a cold pool.
To clean themselves Romans rubbed their skin with oil and scraped it off with a tool called a strigil.
Larger towns also had an amphitheatre where 'sports' such as cock fighting were held and sometimes gladiators fought to the death. Some Roman towns also had theatres.
In Rome there was a great amphitheatre called the Coliseum. It was built in 80 AD and could hold as many as 55,000 people. A sun shade or velarium could be unfurled over the heads of the spectators.
The people of Rome were also very fond of chariot racing. There were four teams, greens, blues, reds and whites. Their supporters often gambled on the outcomes of races treated the charioteers as heroes. However being a charioteer was dangerous and often ended in early death.
The Romans gambled with dice. They also played board games. Roman children played with wooden or clay dolls and hoops. They also played ball games and board games. They also played with toy carts and with animal knucklebones.
A history of games
A Rich Roman's Life
Rich people enjoyed luxuries such as mosaics and (in colder parts of the empire) panes of glass in windows and even a form of central heating called a hypocaust. Wealthy Romans also had wall paintings called murals in their houses.
The wealthy owned very comfortable furniture. It was upholstered and finely carved. People ate while reclining on couches. Oil lamps were used for light. Furthermore some people had a piped water supply. Water was brought into towns in aqueducts they went along lead pipes to wealthy individual houses.
Many wealthy Romans owned large estates in the countryside called villas. They were usually arranged to be self-sufficient. As well as farm workers there were craftsmen like a blacksmith, a carpenter and a potter. (Both farm labourers and craftsmen could be slaves). If the owner of the villa was absent a man called a villicus and his wife the villica ran the villa.
A history of rich people
A Roman dining room was called a triclinium. The Romans ate a breakfast of bread and fruit called the ientaculum. At midday they ate a meal called the prandium of fish, cold meat, bread and vegetables. The main meal was called the cena and was eaten in the evening.
The Romans were also very fond of fish sauce called liquamen. They also liked oysters, which were exported from Britain.
A history of food
A history of drinks
The sons and daughters of well to do Romans went to a primary school called a ludus at the age of 7 to learn to read and write and do simple arithmetic. Girls left at the age of 12 or 13 and only boys went to secondary school where they would learn geometry, history, literature and oratory (the art of public speaking).
Teachers were often Greek slaves. The teachers were very strict and they frequently beat the pupils.
Children wrote on was tablets with a pointed bone stylus. (Adults wrote on a form of paper called papyrus, which was made from the papyrus plant).
A history of education
The Romans are also famous for the network of roads they built across the Empire. Rich people travelled by horse or on long journeys by covered wagon. Sometimes they were carried in litters (seats between two long poles).
Roman ships had a single main mast, which carried a rectangular sail, although some ships also had small sails at the bow and stern. Roman ships did not have rudders. Instead they were steered by oars. The Romans also built lighthouses to aid shipping.
A history of transport
In the first century the Roman legionary wore segmented armour (lorica segmentata). He threw a spear called a pilum and fought with a short sword called a gladius. A curved rectangular shield protected him. There were also auxiliary soldiers, both infantry and cavalry. When they finished their service (after 25 years) they became Roman citizens.
When they were on the move Roman soldiers marched at a steady pace. They covered 30 km a day. At the end of each day they built a camp. They dug a ditch and used the earth to make a rampart. An army on the move carried wooden stakes, which were erected on the rampart. The soldiers slept in tents.
Roman soldiers also formed a formation called a testudo (the Latin word for tortoise). They held their shields over their heads to form an interlocking 'roof'. (Soldiers at the front held their shields in front of them to form a 'wall'). The testudo protected soldiers from arrows and javelins.
For seiges the Roman army also had large wooden catapults and giant crossbows called ballista. When an area was newly conquered legionaries built roads and bridges. Legionaries also manned permanent stone forts along the frontiers of the empire.
Portchester Castle, a Roman fort
The Romans were polytheists. They worshipped many gods. Jupiter was king of the gods. His wife Juno was goddess of women and marriage. Minerva was goddess of wisdom and crafts. Mars was god of war and Mercury was the messenger of the gods. Neptune was god of the sea and Bacchus was god of wine. Diana was goddess of the Moon and of hunting. Ceres was the goddess of crops. Saturn was the god of farming. Venus was goddess of love and beauty and Vulcan was the god of blacksmiths. Pluto was god of the underworld, where the dead dwelt.
The Romans believed it was important to keep the gods happy. To do this sacrifices were made outside the god's temple.
Houses usually had a shrine called a lararium where the family made offerings of food and wine to the gods who, they believed, protected their household. Children were also given a charm called a bulla to protect them from evil.
The Romans were usually tolerant in religion but they sometimes persecuted Christians. The Romans also introduced religions from the east. By the 3rd century Mithraism was popular. It involved the worship of the Persian god Mithras, god of light and the sun.
In the late 1st and 2nd centuries the Romans practices cremation. However in the 3rd century they began to bury the dead. Citizens were buried in cemeteries outside the walls.
Persecution of Christians ended in 312 when Constantine converted to the new faith. In 395 Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire.
Religion in the Ancient World
The Romans conquered Greece and afterwards doctors in the Roman Empire were often Greeks. Many of them were slaves.
Doctors had low status in Rome. However the state paid public doctors to treat they poor. The Romans also had hospitals called valetudinaria for their wounded soldiers.
Later in Roman times Galen (130-200 AD) became a famous doctor. At first he worked treating wounded gladiators. Then in 169 AD he was made doctor to Commodus, the Roman Emperor's son. Galen was also a writer and he wrote many books.
Galen believed the theory of the four humours. He also believed in treating illness with opposites. So if a patient had a cold Galen gave him something hot like pepper.
Galen was also interested in anatomy. Unfortunately by his time dissecting human bodies was forbidden. So Galen had to dissect animal bodies including apes. However animal bodies are not the same as human bodies and so some of Galen's ideas were quite wrong.
Unfortunately Galen was a very influential writer. For centuries his writings dominated medicine.
In the first century BC a Roman named Varro suggested that tiny animals caused disease. They were carried through the air and entered the body through the nose or the mouth. Unfortunately with no microscopes there was no way of testing his theory.
The Romans were also skilled engineers and they created a system of public health. The Romans noticed that people who lived near swamps often died of malaria. They did not know that mosquitoes in the swamps carried disease but they drained the swamps anyway.
The Romans also knew that dirt encourages disease and they appreciated the importance of cleanliness. They built aqueducts to bring clean water into towns.
They also knew that sewage encourages disease. The Romans built public lavatories in their towns. Streams running underneath them carried away sewage.
A history of toilets
A history of medicine
A brief history of Rome
Life in Ancient Greece
Last revised 2012