A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE TITANIC
By Tim Lambert
The Titanic is probably the most famous shipwreck of all time. The Titanic is remembered both because it sank on its maiden voyage and because of the terrible loss of life.
In the 19th century steam ships sailed across the Atlantic. On them the rich travelled in luxury. Second class passengers travelled in comfort and third class passengers (known as steerage passengers) travelled in spartan conditions. Most steerage passengers were emigrants hoping to make a new life in the USA. As well as being a passenger liner Titanic has a contract to carry post across the Atlantic so its full title was RMS (Royal Mail Ship) Titanic.
The Titanic was built in Harland and Wolff shipyards in Belfast. Work on building the Titanic began on 31 March 1909. The Titanic was launched on 31 May 1911. It was the pulled by tugs to a fitting out basin where pieces of equipment like engines and boilers were added and cabins and dining areas were completed. Then on 3 February 1912 the Titanic was moved to a dry dock where propellers were added.
The Titanic had 3 propellers, a small central one and 2 outer ones. To power the ship there 29 boilers with 159 furnaces. Furthermore the Titanic had 9 decks and 4 funnels. Titanic also had 3 anchors. The Titanic also had 15 watertight bulkheads dividing it into 16 compartments. In theory the ship could still float even if 4 compartments flooded. However on the fateful day 5 compartments were flooded.
Titanic was 269 metres long. It carried 20 lifeboats. However there were not enough lifeboats for all on board. If the ship sank there was bound to be heavy loss of life.
From Belfast the Titanic sailed to Southampton where it arrived on 3 April 1912. Tons of supplied were loaded on board. Food loaded on board Titanic included 1,500 gallons of fresh milk and 600 tons of condensed milk. Titanic also carried 36,000 oranges and 16,000 lemons. Also on board Titanic were 20,000 bottles of beer and 1,500 bottles of wine. Titanic also had 40,000 eggs. Titanic also carried huge amounts of cutlery and crockery.
On 10 April 914 passengers entered the Titanic. The Titanic took on more passengers in Cherbourg then sailed to Queenstown (now called Cobh) in Ireland. On 11 April 1912 the Titanic began to cross the Atlantic.
On board Titanic first class passengers enjoyed a swimming pool, a gymnasium and a Turkish bath as well as bars. Cabins for the first class passengers were spacious and very comfortably decorated. For second class passengers conditions were not luxurious but they were still comfortable. Titanic had two libraries one for first class passengers and one for second class. There were also two barber shops on board Titanic, one for the first class passengers and one for second class. (The classes were kept strictly apart in those days). However many passengers were third class or steerage and for them conditions were austere.
Captain Smith was aware of the danger of icebergs and he plotted a new, more southerly course. However he refused to reduce speed. It was a tragic mistake. If Titanic had reduced her speed the collision with the iceberg could have been avoided.
Then about 11.40 on Sunday 14 April a lookout named Frederick Fleet spotted an iceberg ahead. He alerted the bridge. In charge was First Officer William Murdoch. He ordered the helmsman to turn the steering wheel hard to starboard, which would swing the bow of the ship to port (left). However it was too late. The iceberg hit the Titanic a glancing blow on the starboard (right) side. (The best way to remember port and starboard is the saying 'Is there any port left?').
At 12.05 am Captain Smith realised the Titanic was sinking and he ordered lifeboats be uncovered. However the crew had not had a lifeboat drill since leaving Southampton and there was confusion on the deck with many people unsure what to do. Many lifeboats sailed away half empty. Ony 706 people found seats in lifeboats when they could have carried 1,178. Many more lives could have been saved if each lifeboat carried its full complement.
At 2.18 am on Monday 15 April the lights on the Titanic went out and at 2.20 am on 15 April she slipped below the waves. As she sank Titanic split in two. The exact number of people who died when Titanic sank is not known.
A radio message from Titanic was received by a ship called the Carpathia. She steamed to pick up survivors in lifeboats. (The crew of the Titanic also fired rockets to attract attention).Later ships from Halifax, Nova Scotia retrieved dead bodies from the sea. More than 1,500 people died when Titanic sank making it one of the worst maritime disasters in history. The exact number of people who died on Titanic is not known as we are not certain how many people were on board.
Subsequently an enquiry was held in Britain into the disaster and it recommended that in future all ships should carry enough lifeboats for all crew and passengers. It also recommended that all ships should have a radio and it should be manned 24 hours a day. Then in 1914 an international ice patrol was formed to look out for ice in the North Atlantic. Also in 1914 a monument to the engineers on the Titanic was erected in Southampton.
In 1958 a film was made about the Titanic called A Night To Remember. In 1997 it was followed by a film called Titanic. Meanwhile the wreck of the Titanic was rediscovered in 1985.
The Titanic Memorial in Southampton
Life in Britain in 1912
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