TIMELINES OF TRANSPORT
By Tim Lambert
4,000 BC-3,000 BC Horses are domesticated
c 3,500 BC The wheel is invented in Iraq
3,100 BC The sailing boat is invented in Egypt
3,000 BC-2,000 BC Camels are domesticated
c 2,700 BC The Egyptians begin using wooden ships for trade by sea
1st Century AD A vast network of roads exists across the Roman Empire. Roman merchant ships carry up to 1,000 tons of cargo.
12th Century The Compass is invented in Europe. The rudder comes into use in Europe. However on land roads are just dirt tracks.
1600 Goods are transported by pack horse. Goods are also transported around the coast of Britain by ship.
1635 Charles I allows the public to pay his messengers to carry letters. It is the beginning of the Royal Mail.
1663 The first turnpike roads open. Turnpikes are privately owned and maintained but you have to pay to use them. Their name comes from an old word for a gate, pike. In towns the wealthy are carried by sedan chairs.
Mid 18th Century Many more turnpike roads are created
1761 The Bridgwater Canal opens. Many more canals are dug in the late 18th and early 19th century.
A canal in Leeds
1815 Steamships begin crossing the English Channel
1825 The first passenger railway opens
1829 Horse drawn omnibuses run in London
1835 The first hansom cab is made in Hinckley
1838 A steamship crosses the Atlantic in only 19 days
1840s This is the great age of railway building. A network is built across Britain.
1847 HMS Driver becomes the first steamship to travel round the world
1863 The first underground railway opens in London. It is powered by steam.
1885 The car is invented
Flinders Street Station in Melbourne, Australia
1890 The first electric underground trains run in London
1897 The steam turbine makes steamships far more efficient
1900s Electric trams begin running in many towns
1919 Planes begin carrying passengers between London and Paris
1926 The first electric traffic lights in Britain are installed in London
1930s In most towns electric trams are replaced by buses
1934 A driving test is introduced. Cats eyes are invented. A 30 mile an hour speed limit is introduced in built up areas.
1940 About 1 family in 10 in Britain owns a car
1951 The first zebra crossing is made
1952 The first passenger jet service starts
1959 About 32% of families in Britain own a car. The first electric underground trains run in London. The three point seat belt is invented. The first hovercraft is launched.
1963 Dr Beeching closes many branch lines in Britain
1969 Lollipop men and women are introduced The pelican crossing is introduced.
1983 Wearing seat belts is made compulsory in Britain. Wheel clamps are introduced.
1992 Speed cameras are introduced into Britain
1994 The Channel Tunnel opens
A history of transport
A history of communications
A history of the media