EVERYDAY LIFE IN THE 16TH CENTURY
By Tim Lambert
SOCIETY IN TUDOR ENGLAND
In 16th century England most of the population lived in small villages and made their living from farming. However towns grew larger and more important. During the 16th century trade and industry grew rapidly and England became a more and more commercial country. Mining of coal, tin and lead flourished. So did the iron industry. During this period England became richer and richer.
However there were winners and losers in Tudor Times. Upper class and middle class Tudors saw a big rise in their standard of living. As England grew more and more prosperous life for the well off became more and more comfortable. However the lowest section of society, the wage labourers, became worse off. In the 14th century a large part of the population died of plague. As a result there was a shortage of labour so wages went up. However in the 16th century the population recovered so real earnings fell. For the poor life in the 16th century was hard and rough but for the rich and the middle class life became softer.
In the 15th century the population of England may have been around 2 1/2 million. It rose steadily during the 16th century. By 1525 it had risen to around 3 million and by 1600 it was about 4 million.
Tudor society was divided into four broad groups. At the top were the nobility who owned huge amounts of land. Below them were the gentry and rich merchants. Gentlemen owned large amounts of land and they were usually educated and had a family coat of arms. Most important gentlemen never did any manual work, that was beneath their dignity. Below the gentry were yeomen and craftsmen. Yeomen owned their own land. They could be as wealthy as gentlemen but they worked alongside their men. Yeomen and craftsmen were often able to read and write. Below the yeomen were the tenant farmers who leased their land from the rich. There were also wage labourers. They were often illiterate and very poor.
In the 16th century about 50% of the population lived at subsistence level. In other words they had just enough food, clothes and shelter to survive. For them life was very hard.
However it was possible to move from one class to another. With hard work and luck a husbandman could become a yeoman. A yeoman could buy a coat of arms and become gentlemen. It was possible for an ambitious young man to rise in the world.
In Tudor Times the parish became the basis of local government. The leading figure was an appointed magistrate called the Justice of the Peace.
In the 16th century the power of the monarchy increased. During the Middle Ages the barons held castles, which were very difficult to capture so it was easy for them to rebel. Cannons changed all that. (Guns were invented in the 14th century and they gradually became more efficient).
The history of English society
Some Tudor women worked spinning cloth. Women were also tailoresses, milliners, dyers, shoemakers and embroiderers. There were also washerwomen.
Some women worked in food preparation such as brewers, bakers or confectioners. Women also sold foodstuffs in the streets.
A very common job for Tudor women was domestic servant. Other women were midwives and apothecaries.
However most Tudor women were housewives and they were kept very busy. Most men could not run a farm or a business without their wife's help.
In the 16th century most households in the countryside were largely self-sufficient. A housewife (assisted by her servants if she had any) had to bake her family's bread and brew their beer (it was not safe to drink water). She was also responsible for curing bacon, salting meat and making pickles, jellies and preserves (all of which were essential in an age before fridges and freezers). Very often in the countryside the housewife also made the families candles and their soap. The Tudor housewife also spun wool and linen.
A farmer's wife also milked cows, fed animals and grew herbs and vegetables. She often kept bees. She also took goods to market to sell.
On top of that she had to cook, wash the families clothes and clean the house.
The Tudor housewife was also supposed to have some knowledge of medicine and be able to treat her family's illnesses. If she could not they would go to a wise woman. Only the wealthy could afford a doctor.
Poor and middle class wives were kept very busy but rich women were not idle either. In a big house they had to organise and supervise the servants. Also if her husband was away the woman usually ran the estate.
Very often a Tudor merchant's wife did his accounts and if was travelling she looked after the business. Often when a merchant wrote his will he left his business to his wife - because she would be able to run it.
THE POOR IN TUDOR ENGLAND
With the rise in population during the 16th century jobs were not always easy to find. In Tudor Times there were thousands of people without jobs wandering around looking for work. There were also disabled beggars. There were also people who pretended to be mad or disabled in order to beg. Tudor governments tolerated people who were disabled begging. However they did not tolerate able-bodied people without jobs wandering around. They saw such 'sturdy vagabonds' as a threat to law and order.
Since the 14th century there had been laws against vagabonds but in 1530 a new law was passed. The old and disabled poor were to be given licences to beg. However anyone roaming without a job was tied to a cart in the nearest market town and whipped till they were bloody. They were then forced to return to the parish where they had been born or where they had lived for the last 3 years.
A law of 1547 said vagabonds could be made slaves for 2 years. If he ran away during that time he was branded and made a slave for life. This terrible law was abolished in 1550. Once again flogging was made the punishment for vagrancy.
The history of poverty
PUNISHMENTS IN TUDOR ENGLAND
In Tudor Times prison was seldom used as a punishment. Instead people were held in prison until trial then some physical punishment was meted out. Tudor punishments were simple but harsh. In the 16th century minor crimes were often punished by the pillory or the stocks. The pillory was a wooden frame on a pole with holes through which a person's head and hands were placed. The frame was then locked and the person was subjected to humiliation and ridicule. The stocks was a wooden frame with holes through which a person's feet were placed and they were humiliated in the same way. Other common punishments were flogging and branding with red hot irons.
More serious crimes were punished by death. Beheading was reserved for the wealthy. Ordinary people were usually hanged. (They were suspended with a rope round their neck until they were strangled to death). However there were worse ways of killing people.
In 1401 a law in England made burning the penalty for heresy. In the 16th century during the reign of Mary (1553-1558) nearly 300 Protestants were burned to death in England. Sometimes a person about to be burned was strangled with a rope first to spare them pain. In 1531 Henry VIII passed an act allowing poisoners to be boiled alive but the act was repealed after his death in 1547.
In Tudor England the punishment for treason was hanging, drawing and quartering. The man was drawn on a hurdle pulled by a horse to the place of execution. He was hanged (strangled by being suspended by a rope) but when he was still alive and sometimes conscious he was cut down. The executioner cut open his stomach and 'drew out' his entrails. Finally the man was beheaded and his body was cut into quarters.
The history of punishments
HOMES IN TUDOR ENGLAND
In the Middle Ages rich people's houses were designed for defence rather than comfort. In the 16th century life was safer so houses no longer had to be easy to defend. Rich Tudor people built grand houses e.g. Cardinal Wolsey built Hampton Court Palace. Later the Countess of Shrewsbury built Hardwick Hall in Derbyshire.
People below the rich but above the poor built sturdy 'half-timbered' houses. They were made with a timber frame filled in with wattle and daub (wickerwork and plaster). In the late 16th century some people built or rebuilt their houses with a wooden frame filled in with bricks. Roofs were usually thatched though some well off people had tiles. (In London all houses had tiles because of the fear of fire).
In the 16th century furniture was more plentiful than in the Middle Ages but it was still basic. In a wealthy home it was usually made of oak and was heavy and massive. Tudor furniture was expected to last for generations. You expected to pass it on to your children and even your grandchildren. Comfortable beds became more and more common in the 16th century. In a middle class Tudor home a mattress was often stuffed with flock (a kind of rough wool).
Chairs were more common than in the Middle Ages but they were still expensive. Even in an upper class home children and servants sat on stools. The poor had to make do with stools and benches.
In the 15th century only a small minority of people could afford glass windows. In the 16th century they became much more common. However they were still expensive. If you moved house you took your glass windows with you! Windows were made of small pieces of glass held together by strips of lead. They were called lattice windows. However the poor still had to make do with strips of linen soaked in linseed oil.
Chimneys were also a luxury in the 16th century, although they became more common. Furthermore in the Middle Ages a rich person's house was dominated by the great hall. It extended all the way up to the roof of the building. In the 16th century many people installed another storey in their house over the great hall. So well off Tudor people's houses became divided into more rooms.
In rich people's houses the walls of rooms were lined with oak panelling to keep out drafts. People slept in four-poster beds hung with curtains to reduce drafts. Some Tudors had wallpaper but it was very expensive. Other wealthy people hung tapestries or painted cloths on their walls.
In Tudor England carpets were a luxury only the rich could afford. They were usually too expensive to put on the floor! Instead they were often hung on the wall or over tables. People covered their floors with rushes or reeds (or mats of woven rushes or reeds), which they strew with sweet smelling herbs.
In the 16th century prosperous people lit their homes with beeswax candles. However they were expensive. Other people made used candles made from tallow (animal fat) which gave off an unpleasant smell and the poor made do with rush lights (rushes dipped in animal fat).
Rich Tudors had clocks in their homes. The very rich had pocket watches although most people relied on pocket sundials.
Rich people were also fond of gardens. Many had mazes, fountains and topiary (hedges cut into shapes). Less well off people used their gardens to grow vegetables and herbs.
None of the improvements of the 16th century applied to the poor. They continued to live in simple huts with one or two rooms (occasionally three). Smoke escaped through a hole in the thatched roof. Floors were of hard earth and furniture was very basic, benches, stools, a table and wooden chests. They slept on mattresses stuffed with straw or thistledown. The mattresses lay on ropes strung across a wooden frame.
In 1596 Sir John Harrington invented a flushing lavatory with a cistern. However the idea failed to catch on. People continued to use chamber pots or cess pits, which were cleaned by men called gong farmers. (In the 16th century a toilet was called a jakes). For toilet paper rich people used rags while poor people sometimes used a plant called woolly mullein.
The history of homes
FOOD IN TUDOR ENGLAND
In Tudor Times rich people ate vast amounts of meat. However they ate few vegetables. However poor people ate plenty of vegetables because they had no choice! Vegetables were cheap but meat was a luxury.
On certain days by law people had to eat fish instead of meat. At first this was for religious reasons but later in the 16th century it was to support the fishing industry. If you lived near the sea or a river you could eat fresh fish like herrings or mackerel. Otherwise you might have to rely on dried or salted fish.
Poor people lived on a dreary diet in Tudor Times. In the morning they had bread and cheese and onions. They only had one cooked meal a day. They mixed grain with water and added vegetables and (if they could afford it) strips of meat.
In the 16th century all classes ate bread but it varied in quality. Rich peoples bread was made from fine white flour. Poor people ate coarse bread of barley or rye.
The Tudors were also fond of sweet foods (if they could afford them). However in the 16th century sugar was very expensive so most people used honey to sweeten their food.
In the 16th century new foods were introduced from the Americas. Turkeys were introduced into England about 1525. Potatoes were brought to England in the 1580s but at first few English people ate them. Tomatoes came to England from Mexico and apricots were introduced from Portugal.
Normally people in Tudor Times did not drink water because it was too dirty. Young children drank milk. Everyone else drank ale or, if they were rich, wine. From the mid-16th century beer became common. The Tudors also drank cider and perry.
Rich people liked to show off their gold and silver plate. The middle classes would have dishes and bowls made of pewter. The poor made do with wooden plates and bowls. There were no forks. People ate with knives and their fingers or with spoons. Rich people had silver or pewter spoons. The poor used wooden ones.
Tudor people made much of their own food. A farmers wife cured bacon and salted meat to preserve it. She baked bread and brewed beer. She also made pickles and conserves and preserved vegetables. Many prosperous farms kept bees for honey.
The history of food
The history of drinks
TOWNS IN TUDOR ENGLAND
Only a small part of the population of Tudor England lived in towns. Nevertheless they played a vital role in the economy. Peasants brought their surplus produce to weekly markets to sell. All kinds of manufactured goods like shoes and pottery were on sale in towns.
In 1500 London probably had a population of between 60,000 and 70,000. By 1600 its population was over 250,000. Other towns were much smaller. Bristol probably had a population of about 14,000 in 1500. By 1600 it had grown to about 20,000. The next largest town, Norwich had about 10,000 inhabitants in 1500. In 1600 it still had less than 20,000. The largest town in the north of England was York. In 1500 it had a population of about 10,000. By 1600 it had only risen to about 12,000. The next largest town was probably Exeter with a population of about 9,000 in 1600. Most of the towns in Tudor England were much smaller with populations of between 2,500 and 4,000. In the 16th century anything with more than 1,000 inhabitants was considered a town.
In most Tudor towns tradesmen of one kind tended to live and work in the same street e.g. in many towns butchers and slaughterhouses gathered together in a street called the Shambles.
Tudor towns were dirty, smelly and crowded. There were no sewers and no drains. Rubbish such as rotting vegetables, offal and dirty water were thrown in the streets. In some towns every man was supposed to clean the street in front of his house once a week but it is unlikely many people bothered! Rats and other vermin were common.
People usually obtained their water from wells or from water carriers who carried water in containers on their shoulders. Some towns had conduits which brought in water from the countryside and which the public could use.
Furthermore in some towns the principal streets were paved but most town streets were not.
In the 16th century streets were also very narrow. Upper storeys of buildings jutted out over lower storeys. These were called jetties.
At night the streets were dark and dangerous. Quite apart from the danger of being robbed it was easy to have an accident in dark, unpaved streets. In London you could hire a linkboy with a lamp to light your way. However many people avoided going out after dark.
Given the dirty condition of Tudor towns it is not surprising that outbreaks of plague were common. When plague struck it might kill 10%, 15% or even more of the population of a town. However towns always recovered. There were always plenty of poor people in the countryside willing to come to towns in search of work.
The history of English towns
London grew enormously in the 16th century. In 1500 the town was encompassed by its walls but by 1600 rich men had built houses along the Strand joining London to Westminster. In the Middle Ages the church owned about 1/4 of the land in London. When Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries it released a great deal of land for new buildings.
Along the walls of Tudor London were several gates, Aldgate, Bishopsgate, Moorgate, Cripplegate, Aldersgate, Newgate and Ludgate. Two of the gates were used as prisons, Ludgate and Newgate. Furthermore the body parts of traitors who had been hung drawn and quartered were displayed over the gates as a warning.
Over the River Thames was London Bridge, which had buildings along its length. (Many of them had shops on the ground floor). South of the Thames was the large suburb of Southwark. The River Thames was a major transport 'artery' as Tudor London was the largest port in England. Sailing ships sailed to quays just before London Bridge and there were also smaller boats owned by watermen for transporting people along the Thames. Tudor monarchs and other rich people had their own barges. There were also many fishermen in London and The Thames teemed with fish like salmon, trout, perch, flounder and beam. However The Thames sometimes froze over and fairs were held on it.
At night the streets of London were dark and dangerous. At 9 pm in summer and at dusk in winter church bells rang the curfew and the city gates were locked.
In Tudor England roads were just dirt tracks. Men were supposed, by law, to spend a number of days repairing the local roads but it is unlikely they did much good! People travelled by horse. You could either ride your own or you could hire a horse. From the mid-16th century some rich people rode in carriages. They must have been very uncomfortable because they did not have springs and roads were very bumpy.
In the 16th century you would be lucky if you could travel 50 or 60 kilometres a day. It normally took a week to travel from London to Plymouth. However rich Tudor people deliberately traveled slowly. They felt it was undignified to hurry and they took their time.
Goods were sometimes transported by pack horse (horses with bags on their sides). Also carriers with covered wagons carried goods and sometimes passengers. However when possible people preferred to transport goods by water. All around England there was a 'coastal trade'. Goods from one part of the country, such as coal, were taken by sea to other parts.
The history of transport
GAMES IN TUDOR ENGLAND
Although the days of armoured knights were over rich people still enjoyed tournaments in the 16th century. The contestants dressed in armour and rode horses. They fought with wooden lances and swords.
Rich Tudor people also enjoyed hunting. They went hunting deer with bows and arrows. After it was killed the deer was eaten. The rich also went hawking. Falcons were trained to kill other birds. However in the 16th century rich people did not hunt foxes.
In the 16th century rich people also liked wrestling and 'casting the bar', which was like shot-putting but with an iron bar. They also played billiards (but not snooker, which is a 19th century game).
Rich Tudors also played board games like chess and backgammon (a backgammon set was found on the wreck of the Mary Rose. It is the same as a modern one). They also tennis with a leather ball stuffed with hair. They also played bowls and skittles. Playing cards were also popular.
All classes gambled in the 16th century. Poor people gambled with dice. They also played games like shuffleboard (shove ha'penny) and nine mens morris. The Tudors also played draughts and fox and geese.
Music and dancing were also very popular. The printing press made books much cheaper so reading was a popular pastime for well off people.
Ordinary people played a rough version of football. There were no rules and the 'pitch' was often a large area including woods and even streams! It was a very rough game. Injuries like broken limbs were common.
Cruel 'sports' like cockfighting were also popular in Tudor Times. So was bear baiting. A bear was chained to a post and dogs were trained to attack it.
Another popular entertainment in Tudor Times was watching public executions! Criminals were hanged in public and large crowds turned out to watch.
In the Middle Ages plays for ordinary people were often religious. They were based on Bible stories or were meant to teach the people Christian values. The actors were usually amateurs and plays were performed on carts or wagons. They were financed by craftsmens guilds.
However in the 16th century theatre became separated from religion. Secular plays were written, both comedies and tragedies. In the early and mid-16th century secular plays were put on for the rich and in educational establishments such as schools and universities. Classical plays were performed and modern comedies.
In the 16th century groups of professional actors became common. However Tudor governments were suspicious of actors. They were regarded as layabouts who did no useful work. From 1572 actors had to hold a licence from a noble. Without protection from some powerful man actors were likely to be arrested as vagrants!
In the early 16th century actors performed in market squares or inn courtyards. However in the late 16th century theatre became more and more popular and it eventually became worthwhile making a purpose-built theatres in large towns. In 1576 a man named James Burbage built the first theatre. Others followed. Those who could afford the best seats were sheltered from the weather. However the poor customers stood in the open air. They were called groundlings. Rich people sat on the stage!
There were no female actors in Tudor Times. Boys played women's parts. Plays were usually held during the day because of the difficulty of lighting a stage.
Tudor children played with wooden dolls. (They were called Bartholomew babies because they were sold at St Bartholomew's fair in London). They also played cup and ball (a wooden ball with a wooden cup on the end of handle. You had to swing the handle and try and catch the ball in the cup).
The history of games
EDUCATION IN TUDOR ENGLAND
In the early 16th century many boys went to chantry schools. Rich men left money in their wills to pay priests to pray for their souls. After the religious changes of the 1540s the chantry schools were closed. However many rich men founded grammar schools.
Tudor boys usually went to a kind of nursery school called a 'petty school' first then moved onto grammar school when they were about seven. The school day began at 6 am in summer and 7 am in winter (people went to bed early and got up early in those days). Lunch was from 11 am to 1 pm. School finished at about 5pm. Boys went to school 6 days a week and there were few holidays.
Many children learned to read and write with something called a hornbook. It was not a book in the modern sense. Instead it was a wooden board with a handle. Fixed to the board was a sheet of paper with the alphabet and the Lord's prayer (the Our Father) written on it. The paper was usually protected by a thin slice of animal horn.
Discipline in Tudor schools was savage. The teacher often had a stick with birch twigs attached to it. Boys were hit with the birch twigs on their bare buttocks.
At about 15 or 16 the brightest boys might go to one of England's two universities, Oxford and Cambridge.
Of course many boys did not go to school at all. If they were lucky they might get a 7-year apprenticeship and learn a trade. Some craftsmen could read and write but few labourers could.
As for Tudor girls, in a rich family a tutor usually taught them at home. In a middle class family their mother might teach them. Upper class and middle class women were educated. However lower class girls were not.
Tudor children who did not go to school were expected to work. They helped their parents by doing tasks such as scaring birds when seeds were sown They also helped to weave wool and did other household tasks.
In the 16th century children from rich families usually had their marriages arranged for them. If they refused to marry the person their parents chose they were beaten until they changed their minds. Children from poorer families had more choice over whom to marry. Yet girls usually married young. Many were married when they were only 15 or 16. Boys often married between the ages of 18 and 21.
The history of education
CLOTHES IN TUDOR ENGLAND
For rich people in the 16th century fashion was important. For the poor clothes had to be hardwearing and practical. All classes wore wool. However it varied in quality. The rich wore fine quality wool. The poor wore coarse wool.
Linen was used to make shirts and underwear. However only the rich could afford cotton and silk. Rich people also embroidered their clothes with silk, gold or silver thread. Rich Tudor women wore silk stockings.
In the 16th century men wore short trouser-like garments called breeches. They also wore tight fitting jackets called doublets. Another jacket called a jerkin was worn over the doublet. Over the jerkin rich men wore a gown, or later in the 16th century a cloak or cape.
However instead of a doublet many workingmen wore a loose tunic. It was easier to work in. Some workingmen wore a leather jerkin called a buff-jerkin. Men also wore stockings or woollen socks, which were called hose.
Tudor women wore a kind of petticoat called a smock or shift or chemise made of linen or wool and a wool dress over it. A woman's dress was made of two parts, a bodice or corset like garment and a skirt. Sleeves were held on with laces and could be detached. Workingwomen wore a linen apron.
In the late 16th century many women wore a frame made of whale bone or wood under their dress called a farthingale. If they could not afford a farthingale women wore a padded roll around their waist called a bum roll.
Tudor women did not wear knickers. However men sometimes wore linen shorts.
In Tudor Times everyone wore hats. Poor women often wore a linen cap called a coif. After 1572 by law all men except nobles had to wear a woollen cap on Sundays.
In the 16th century buttons were usually for decoration. Clothes were often held together with laces or pins. Furs in Tudor Times included cat, rabbit, beaver, bear, badger and polecat.
People used mostly vegetable dyes such as madder for red, woad for blue or walnut for brown. However you have to use a chemical called a mordant to 'fix' the dye. The mordant changed the colour of the dye e.g. a plant called weld was used with alum for yellow but if used with iron or tin it produced shades of green.
The most expensive dyes were bright red, purple and indigo. Poor people often wore brown, yellow or blue. Incidentally in the 16th century scarlet was not a colour it was the name of a fine, expensive wool.
Some Tudor women wore wigs. Both Elizabeth and Mary Queen of Scots wore them. When Mary was beheaded her wig came off.
In the 16th century called sumptuary laws laid down what each class could and could not wear. Complicated laws said that only persons of a certain rank could wear certain expensive materials such as velvet and silk. These laws, of course, made no difference to poor people since they could not afford 'sumptuous' materials even if they wanted to. They were supposed to keep the better off classes, such as nobility, gentry and rich merchants, separate. You were supposed to be able to tell which class somebody belonged to by his or her clothes. However the sumptuary laws proved to be unenforceable and many people simply ignored them.
The history of clothes
In the 16th century many people died in epidemics of sweating sickness (possibly influenza). Many others died of smallpox. (Queen Elizabeth I almost died of it. However she was given the most advanced medical treatment for smallpox - she was wrapped in red cloth.) Even if you survived smallpox it could leave you disfigured with pox marks or blind. Syphilis was also rampant. Dysentery was also a killer and many women died in childbirth (usually because of infection).
Tudor doctors were very expensive and they could do little about illness partly because they did not know what caused disease. They had little idea of how the human body worked. Doctors thought the body was made up of four fluids or 'humours'. They were blood, phlegm, choler or yellow bile and melancholy or black bile. In a healthy person all four humours were balanced but if you had too much of one you fell ill.
If you had too much blood you would be bled either with leeches or by cutting a vein. Too much of other humours would be treated either by eating the right diet or by purging (taking medicines to cause vomiting or diarrhoea).
Doctors also fought infectious disease, like plague, was caused by poisonous 'vapours', which drifted through the air and were absorbed through the skin.
One of the main ways of diagnosing sickness was uroscopy (examining urine) by its appearance, its smell or even by its taste!
Astrology also played a part in Tudor medicine. Most doctors believed that different zodiacal signs ruled different parts of the body.
Since doctors were so expensive many people went to see a wise woman if they were ill. The wise women would have a great knowledge of different herbs and their properties and might be able to help. Unfortunately many folk-cures were absurd e.g. a treatment for gout was goat's grease with saffron.
Actual operations were performed by a barber-surgeon. He was the barber, the surgeon and the dentist combined. Barber-surgeons had lower status than doctors. Lower still were the apothecaries who made up medicines.
The average life span in the 16th century was shorter than today. Average life expectancy at birth was only 35. (So only half of all people born lived to be 35). However many of the people born died while they were still children. Out of all people born between one third and one half died before the age of about 16. However if you could survive to your mid-teens you would probably live to your 50s or early 60s. Even in the 16th century some people did live to their 70s or 80s.
The history of medicine
In the 16th century guns transformed warfare. Early guns were lit by a slow match (string was soaked in saltpetre and when it was lit it smouldered). The slow match was touched to the gunpowder to ignite it. However in the early 16th century the wheelock was invented. A metal wheel spun against a piece or iron pyrites generating sparks that ignited the gunpowder. As a result most cavalry stopped using lances. Instead they carried two or three pistols each, ready to fire, and sabres.
Meanwhile in the early 16th century the traditional English weapon was the longbow but handguns were increasingly used. The longbow slowly went out of use during the 16th century. However muskets took a long time to reload and during that time the infantry needed protection from cavalry. They were protected by men with pikes (a weapon like a long spear).
Tudor forts and walled towns often had bastions. They were triangular sections of wall that jutted out from the rest of the wall. They provided flanking fire. In other words guns on the bastion could fire at approaching soldiers from the sides.
A history of 16th Century England
Daily life in England in the Middle Ages
Daily life in the 17th Century
Daily in the 18th Century
Daily life in the 19th Century
Daily life in the 20th Century
Last revised 2013