A BRIEF HISTORY OF WOMEN'S RIGHTS
By Tim Lambert
Women's Rights in the Ancient World
In the Ancient World women's rights varied from one civilization to another. In Ancient Egypt women had a great deal of freedom. They could own property and they could sign contracts. (There is evidence that in Ancient Egypt some women could read and write). A famous woman Pharaoh called Hatshepsut once ruled Egypt.
In Ancient Israel the father had authority over his family. He could divorce his wife if he wished. He could also arrange marriages for his children. Girls in Israel got married very young. A girl could marry when she was 12.
When a father died his sons inherited his property. The oldest son was given a double share. Daughters could only inherit property if there were no sons.
In Ancient Greece people worshiped goddesses as well as gods. Women participated in some religious festivals but not in politics or warfare. In a wealthy family women were women were kept apart from men. They were usually confined to the back or upper part of the house. Girls married when they were about 15. Marriages were arranged for them and often their husband was much older than them.
In a rich Greek family the wife was expected to run the home and, sometimes, to manage the finances. However rich women would normally stay indoors and send slaves to do the shopping. Poor women, of course, had no choice. They might also have to help their husbands with farm work. Women, even rich ones, were expected to spin and weave cloth and make clothes.
Sappho, a Greek woman poet lived around 600 BC. Theano of Crotona was a great mathematician born about 546 BC. About 200 BC Aglaonike was a woman astronomer.
In Rome women could not vote or hold public office. However women were allowed to own and inherit property and some ran businesses. (In the New Testament there is a woman named Lydia who sold purple cloth).
Meanwhile Celtic women had a good deal of freedom and many rights. Celtic women could rule in their own right. One famous woman of the ancient world was Bouddica. She was queen of the Iceni, a Celtic tribe who lived in what is now Norfolk in England. She led a rebellion against Roman rule.
Another famous woman of the Ancient world was Hypatia (355?-415 AD). She was a mathematician, astronomer and philosopher who lived in Alexandria in Egypt.
Women's Rights in the Middle Ages and 16th and 17th Century
Well off Saxon women had considerable freedom (although both men and women could be slaves). Saxon women were allowed to own and inherit property and to make contracts. In Viking society too women had a good deal of freedom. However life was hard for everyone in Saxon Times and the Middle Ages and women as well as men had to work hard to survive.
In the Middle Ages it was not unusual for middle class women to run their own businesses. In England the mystic Margery Kempe ran a brewery and later a horse mill, using horses to grind corn. Women married to craftsmen usually learned their husband's trade and carried it on if their husband died.
Famous women of the Middle Ages
In the 16th century women were martyred for their religious beliefs. They refused to compromise even if tortured.
In 1513 Henry VIII went to war in France. He made Queen Katherine Governor of the Realm and Captain-General of the home forces in his absence. In other words he was willing to entrust the kingdom to her.
In 1544 Henry went to war in France again. This time he made Catherine Parr regent in his absence.
In the 16th and 17th centuries the professions (teacher, lawyer, doctor) were closed to women. However some women had jobs. Some of them worked spinning cloth. Women were also tailors, milliners, dyers, shoemakers and embroiderers. There were also washerwomen. Some women worked in food preparation such as brewers, bakers or confectioners. Women also sold foodstuffs in the streets. A very common job for women was domestic servant. Other women were midwives and apothecaries.
However most women were housewives and they were kept very busy. Most men could not run a farm or a business without their wife's help.
Poor and middle class wives were kept very busy but rich women were not idle either. In a big house they had to organize and supervise the servants. Also if her husband was away the woman usually ran the estate. Very often a merchant's wife did his accounts and if he was travelling she looked after the business. Often when a merchant wrote his will he left his business to his wife - because she would be able to run it.
In the 16th century girls did not go to school. However girls from well off families were usually educated at home. Tutors taught upper class girls. Their mothers taught middle class girls reading, writing, arithmetic and skills like sewing. Merchant's daughters were very often taught to run their father's business.
In the early 16th century some upper class women were highly educated. tow of Henry VIII's wives, Katherine of Aragon and Catherine Parr were well educated. Queen Elizabeth I was also well educated and she liked reading. Wealthy girls learned music and dancing and needlework. They also learned to read and write and they learned languages like Greek and Latin, Spanish, Italian and French.
However towards the end of the 16th century girls spent less time on academic subjects and more time on skills like music and embroidery. Moreover during the 17th century boarding schools for girls were founded in many towns. In them girls were taught subjects like writing, music and needlework.
In the 16th century marriages were usually arranged, except for the poorest people. Divorce was unknown. Legally girls could marry when they were 12 years old. However normally it was only girls from rich families who married young. The majority of women married in their mid-20s.
Life in the 16th Century
Women's Rights in the 18th Century
There was little change in women's rights in the 18th century. Girls from well off families went to school but it was felt important for them to learn 'accomplishments' like embroidery and music rather than academic subjects.
Nevertheless there were a number of famous women writers and scientists in the 18th century. Maria Kirch (1670-1720) was a famous astronomer. Laura Bassi (1711-1778) became professor of anatomy at Bologna University in 1732. Maria Agnesi (1718-1799) was a famous mathematician and Emilie du Chatelet (1706-1749) was a woman physicist and mathematician. In 1792 Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) published a book called A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.
Women's Rights in the 19th Century
In the 19th century women gained more opportunities for employment. In the 19th century most working class girls began to get some education. In the early and mid 19th century the churches provided some schools. After 1870 the state provided them.
In early 19th century Britain working conditions were often appalling but parliament passed laws to protect women and children. In 1842 a law banned women and boys under 10 from working underground. Then in 1847 a Factory Act said that women and children could only work 10 hours a day in textile factories.
In 1874 the first successful typewriter went on sale and the telephone was invented in 1876. These two new inventions meant more job opportunities for women. Ultimately technological and economic change transformed the lives of women.
There were many famous women in the 19th century. Two of them were Florence Nightingale and Mary Seacole. They reformed nursing.
There were also many famous women writers in the 19th century. Among them were Jane Austen, the Bronte sisters, Elizabeth Gaskell and George Eliot (Mary Anne Evans).
The first American woman to be elected a mayor was Susanna Mador Salter in 1887. The first woman in Britain to qualify as a dentist was Lilian Murray in 1895. The first woman to qualify as an architect in Britain was Ethel Charles in 1898.
In Britain in 1853 an Act for the Better Prevention and Punishment of aggravated assaults upon women and children was passed. A man who beat his wife could be imprisoned for up to 6 months with or without hard labor. In Britain in 1878 a new law allows a woman to obtain a separation order if her husband is violent. Meanwhile in 1869 John Stuart Mill published his book The Subjection of Women, which demanded equal rights for women.
In the late 19th century women gained opportunities in higher education. In the USA in 1841 three women gained bachelor degrees from Oberlin College. They were the first American women to gain bachelor degrees. In 1877 Helen Magill White became the first woman in the USA to gain a PhD. London University was the first British university to award women degrees in 1880.
Until the late 19th century in Britain everything a married woman had was, legally her husbands property. However the 1870 Married Women's Property act stated that a married woman's earnings belonged to her. Further Married Woman's Property Acts were passed in 1882 and 1893. They allowed married women to own, buy and sell property the same as a single woman.
Meanwhile in the USA the first women's rights convention was held at Seneca Falls in 1848. (The same year Maria Mitchell becomes the first woman member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences). The campaign for women's rights in the USA in the 19th century was led by Susan B Anthony (1820-1906) and Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902).
Life in the 19th Century
Women's Rights in the 20th Century
During the 20th century women gained equal rights with men. Technological and economic changes made it inevitable that women would be given the same rights as men.
At the beginning of the 19th century only a small minority of men could vote. During the 19th century the right to vote was gradually extended to more and more men. (Although in Britain not all men could vote until 1918). Once most men could vote movements began to get women the right to vote as well.
Meanwhile in 1897 in Britain local groups of women who demanded the vote joined to form the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS). The organisation was moderate and its members were called suffragists.
However in 1903 a more radical organisation was formed called the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU). Emmeline Pankhurst led it and its members were called suffragettes. Some suffragettes committed crimes like vandalism and arson and were imprisoned. Some suffragette prisoners went on hunger strike but in 1913 the government passed the Cat and Mouse Act which allowed them to release hunger strikers then arrest them again when they recovered. However the suffragettes halted their campaign when the first World War began in 1914.
Some men supported the suffragettes and wanted women to be allowed to vote. In 1907 they formed the Men's League for Women's Suffrage.
However not all women were suffragettes. Many women were anti-suffragettes. They opposed women being allowed to vote. In Britain the Women's National Anti-Suffrage League was formed in 1908. Its president was Mary Humphry Ward, a famous novelist.
Finally in 1918 in Britain women over 30 were allowed to vote. In 1928 women in Britain were allowed to vote at the age of 21 (the same as men). In 1919 Nancy Astor became the first female MP and in 1929 Margaret Bondfield became the first female cabinet minister. In 1979 Margaret Thatcher became the first female Prime Minister of Britain.
Meanwhile in the USA the territory of Wyoming allowed women to vote in 1869. When Wyoming joined the union in 1890 it became the first state in the USA to allow women to vote. Some other states followed. Finally in 1920 the 19th amendment guaranteed American women the right to vote. Meanwhile in 1917 Jeannette Rankin became the first woman to serve in Congress (in the House of Representatives). Then in 1922 Rebecca Latimer Felton became the first woman US senator. Then in 1925 Nellie Tayloe Ross became the first woman governor of a US state (Wyoming). In 1981 Sandra Day O'Connor became the first woman judge on the US supreme court. Madeleine Albright became the first US secretary of state in 1997.
Other countries also granted women the right to vote. New Zealand was the first country in the world to allow women to vote in national elections in 1893. In Australia women were granted the right to vote in federal elections in 1902. In Canada women were allowed to vote in federal elections in 1918. Canada gained its first woman MP in 1921. Her name was Agnes Macphail.
From 1906 Finnish women were allowed to vote. Furthermore in 1907 Finnish women became the first in the world to win seats in a national parliament. In Norway women were given the vote in local elections in 1907 and in national elections in 1913. Denmark allowed women to vote in 1915. Germany and Austria granted women the right to vote in 1918. The Netherlands followed in 1919. Sweden gave women the right to vote in 1921. In Turkey women were allowed to vote from 1930. In Spain women gained the vote in 1931. However in France women were not allowed to vote until 1944. Women in Italy were given the right to vote in 1945. Women in Greece were allowed to vote in 1952 but in Switzerland they were not allowed to until 1971!
The first woman to become prime minister of a country was Sirimavo Bandaranaike in Sri Lanka in 1960. The first woman to be president of a country was Isabel Peron in Argentina in 1974. (Although she was originally vice president and became president on the death of the president). The first woman to be elected president was Vigdis Finnbogadottir in Iceland in 1980.
In the 20th century more occupations were opened to women. Elizabeth Garrett Anderson became the first woman mayor in Britain in 1908. In 1913 Emily Dawson became the first woman magistrate in Britain. Meanwhile In 1910 the first policewoman was appointed in Los Angeles. In 1916 the first policewoman (with full powers) was appointed in Britain. The 1919 Sex Disqualification Removal Act allowed women to become lawyers, vets and civil servants. (The first female solicitor was Carrie Morrison in 1922). Also in 1922 Irene Barclay became the first female chartered surveyor.
In 1917 the WRNS (Women's Royal Naval Service) was formed. So was the WRAF (Women's Royal Air Force). In 1938 the Auxiliary Territorial Service, the female branch of the British army was formed.
In 1958 Hilda Harding became the first woman bank manager in Britain.
Nevertheless in the early 20th century it was uncommon for married women to work (except in wartime). However in the 1950s and 1960s it became common for them to do so - at least part-time. New technology made it easier for married women to do paid work. Before the 20th century housework was so time consuming it left married women no time for work. The economy also changed. Manufacturing industry became less important but service industries grew, which created more job opportunities for women.
In the USA the Equal Pay Act 1963 compelled employers to give equal pay for equal work. In Britain in 1970 an Equal Pay Act made differences in pay and conditions between men and women illegal. In 1973 women were admitted to the stock exchange. From 1975 it was made illegal to sack women for becoming pregnant. Also in 1975 the Sex Discrimination Act made it illegal to discriminate against women in employment, education and training. In 1984 a new law stated that equal pay must be given for work of equal value. In the late 20th century the number of women in managerial and other highly paid jobs greatly increased.
In 1921 Dr Marie Stopes opened the first birth control clinic in England. Contraceptive pills became available in Britain in 1961.
Meanwhile in 1930 Amy Johnson became the first women to fly from Britain to Australia. In 1963 Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman in space. The first American woman in space was Sally Ride in 1983.
Life in the 20th Century
A timeline of women's rights
A brief history of women's jobs
A brief history of women's clothes
A brief history of women's underwear
Last revised 2014